Edition Guidelines

For questions, please contact us at info.salamanca(at)adwmainz.de.

David Glück, Andreas Wagner - Last Updated: May 2018

1.  Basics

1.1.  Introduction

The documents published on this website have been encoded within the scope of the project "The School of Salamanca. A Digital Collection of Sources and a Dictionary of its Juridical-Political Language" of the Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur | Mainz. Besides creating a dictionary, the project aims at a freely available and easily accessible collection of important texts from the discoursive context of the so called "School of Salamanca", which are being digitized for this purpose (usually in the form of their initial edition). A critical revision, or a recourse to manuscript templates, for instance, has been refrained from. The total corpus of works that are gradually being encoded and published on the website is documented here.

1.2.  About the Digital Edition

The digital edition of "The School of Salamanca" consists of 116 works that are encoded by means of an adaptation of the TEI P5 schema. This adapted schema (in the following, "SalTEI") is TEI-compliant and specifically designed for the research demands of the project, which comprise especially the following points:

  • The (hyper-)linking of the text sources to the dictionary entries of lemmata from the discoursive context of the School of Salamanca.
  • The inter-linking of the text sources by means of references to (other) "internal" works and/or authors of the digital collection of sources, and the linking of entities (person and place names, bibliographic references) within the sources to external authority files.
  • The presentation of the texts by means of a synoptic (text-image) reading view in a diplomatic form (close to the original source text) as well as in a constitutive (normalized) form, realized through systematically conducted corrections and abbreviation expansions with the texts.
  • The searchability of the texts by means of a term-precise full text search, including comfortable, extended search options such as a multiple-token search that is able to make use of context parameters and exception rules.
  • A selective and orderely accessiblity of the texts, for instance with regards to authors, title keywords, publication dates, or publication places.

At this, the edition of the sources is not to be considered a strictly sequential process of text preparation and enrichment towards a single and "ultimately" published edition text, but rather makes use of the possibilities of the digital medium in that already published works are further enrichable (possibly involving the larger scholarly community). The multidimensionality of the research demands as well as the step-by-step (re-)editability of the texts pose, at the same time, challenges to the digital edition when it comes to editing and publication of the texts, which are to be encountered, for instance, by means of an elaborated schema of editing status that each text traverses mandatorily.

1.3.  About the Edition Guidelines

The edition guidelines at hand (henceforth "the guidelines") are to be understood as XML encoding guidelines with the purpose of:

  • documenting in a precise way the regulations and special features with regards to which the texts of the digital edition were created.
  • describing the fundamental structure of the text encoding and markup. In case of potential uncertainties during preparation steps (Double Keying, semi-automatic corrections, and prearrangements) these guidelines are to be consulted.
  • providing support during the process of scholarly annotation of the texts. Particularly in cases of doubt, the guidelines are meant to be the first reference.
  • pointing out which of the recommendations stated here are to be understood as optional. This type of recommendation is marked by means of a OPTIONAL  symbol. If not explicitely stated as optional, recommendations are mandatory.

The comprehensive SalTEI tagset cannot be covered in its completeness at this point; for this purpose, please refer to the technical reference documents linked below. The guidelines rather aim at describing the applied standards of text encoding, such as the handling of special characters, abbreviations, foot notes or marginal notes, damages in original samples, citations, annotations of person and place names, etc. They explain how special characters are represented, or how references to lemmata, works, or authors are realized by means of TEI XML.

In addition to the examples mentioned in the following, exemplary use cases (in fact, all use cases) can be extracted automatically from our texts on our codesharing page. For that, we have installed the comfortable codesharing service developed by Martin Holmes for the Map of Early Modern London project.

1.4.  Technical Documentation and Downloads

Definitions and documentations for the edition's TEI P5 adaptation are available in the form of the following data:

  • .odd (all-in-one xml definition of SalTEI)
  • .rng (SalTEI RelaxNG schema)

Furthermore, the following data are available for download:

  • .xml (the documentation file at hand)
  • .xml (overview of the standard and non-standard characters utilized in this edition)

2.  Text Editing: Statuses and Revision History

2.1.  Editing Status

In the process of editing and annotation, a text generally traverses nine different statuses of processing, their ordering not everywhere to be understood as sequential; for instance, a text may traverse several times the h_revised and g_revised_approved statuses within the scope of scholarly annotation and editing.

  • a_raw The text, encoded through double keying, has been converted to a simple TEI file conforming to the schema specifications.
  • b_cleared Uncertainty marks by the typists have been resolved through comparison with the original reference.
  • c_hyph_proposed Propositions for hyphenations, corrections, and abbreviation expansions have been created.
  • d_hyph_approved Propositions for hyphenations, corrections, and abbreviation expansions have been accepted by the project's scholars and have been implemented in the text.
  • e_emended_unenriched Enrichment of the text (annotation of special characters, annotation of persons, places, bibliographic references, and linking to datasets of authors and of the dictionary) is in progress.
  • f_enriched Enrichment of the text has been done. Four-eye examination and correction of the enrichment annotations is still pending.
  • g_enriched_approved The examination and correction of the enrichment has been done. The text has been released officially, publicly and in a persistently quotable way and thus stands at the disposal of the scholarly community.
  • h_revised Further propositions for correction and enrichment of the text, collected during a qualifying period and potentially originating from third parties within the scholarly community, have been added to the text. A four-eye examination and correction of the further annotations is still pending.
  • i_revised_approved Further propositions for correction and enrichment of the text have been accepted by the project's scholars, the text has been released anew (i.e., with new persistent identifiers), although older versions are still available.
  • z_final The text has been "frozen" in the form of a version not further modifiable at the end of all editing phases and for the purpose of long-term archival and/or presentation of the project results.

2.2.  Revision History

The revision history for a text records all changes of/within the TEI document and is maintained within the revisionDesc element of the teiHeader. At this, the current editing status is stated in the status attribute of revisionDesc.

                            <revisionDesc status="j_frozen">
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="z_final">Final version for archival of project results.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="i_revised_approved">Further corrections/enrichment approved, re-release.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="h_revised">Further corrections/enrichment done, pending four-eye cross-check.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="g_enriched_approved">Enrichment approved, work publicly and persistently released.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="f_enriched">Enrichment done, pending four-eye cross-check.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="e_emended_unenriched">Enrichment (entity annotation, linking, etc.) in process.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="d_hyph_approved">Hyphenation, correction and abbr. expansion suggestions approved and implemented.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed1" status="c_hyph_proposed">Hyphenation, correction and abbr. expansion suggestions, first version that is viewable by the public.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed2" status="b_cleared">Uncertainty marks resolved.</change>
                                    <change who="#Ed1" status="a_raw">Just converted to TEI.</change>

3.  Editorial Interventions

3.1.  Encoded Text Areas

The parts of text relevant, transcribed and encoded within the scope of the edition comprise, firstly, the "main area" of the original text, that is, the (potentially, multi-column) part of text at the center of a page that itself does not encompass other parts of text on that page. Furthermore, from the marginal area of text encompassing the aforementioned main area, marginal and foot notes are encoded, as well as page or folio numbers. However, running heads/titles, signature marks, or catchwords are not encoded. Equally, manually written elements (handwritten notes, additions, symbols, drawings, marks, etc.) occurring on print pages are not encoded or documented.

Printed images, illustrations or graphics are not recorded as such but marked in the text by means of figure tags (as "placeholders"). Thus, these types of elements of the print image are not rendered within the reading view of the digital edition, although their occurrence is indicated as a "reference" to the image view of the according facsimile page.

3.2.  Normailzation of Characters and Spellings

3.2.1.  Silent Normalizations

  • Ligatures (ß, ſt, st, fi, fl, , ij, etc.) are silently resolved; however, the digraphs w, œ, æ are adopted from the original text. The hereby underlying assumption is that these digraphs form an orthographic unit consisting of two letters and, accordingly, one sound, whereas ligatures can be regarded as a merely typographical phenomenon. The systematic differentiation in this case is not simple, but rather controversial; yet, in our case it only applies to these mentioned three digraphs. At any rate, both phenomena (digraphs and ligatures) are, furthermore, possibly subject to normalization or expansion (see below).
  • The long, or descending, s (ſ) was silently resolved, i.e. replaced through s, thus far.
  • The utilization of blank space was adjusted, to the greatest extent, according to modern conventions, making clear the correct compounding and hyphenation of words, which is not necessarily visible in the print image of the original sample.
  • Citations/quotations are represented by means of q or quote elements, respectively (cf. the TEI Guidelines), potentially existing quotation signs from the original text are thereby omitted.
  • Identified transcription errors (introduced during the double keying phase of text encoding and not existent in the original source) are silently corrected.

3.2.2.  Non-Standard Characters

Non-Standard characters are encoded as Unicode characters as far as possible. Characters of the so called "Codepage Latin-1", meaning the first two Unicode blocks [Basic Latin] and [Latin-1 Supplement] – hence, characters with a codepoint below x0100, the first character of the [Latin Extended-A] block – are encoded directly based on the Unicode chart, i.e., as a precomposed character (for example, ä or é).

Further Unicode characters are encoded either as precomposed characters as well, or as numeric character references (NCR) (for instance: &#x1EBD; stands for ẽ). In both cases, potentially, character combinations using combining characters such as accents, tildes, or apostrophes, may be utilized (see, for instance, e&#x0303; as ẽ). Generally, the edition's XML data are declared as <?xml encoding="UTF-8"?> (see TEI P5 Guidelines, vi.2).

If non-standard characters are not unambiguously definable as Unicode characters and are also not expressible as a combination of such characters, the recommendations of the Medieval Unicode Font Initiative (in version 4.0) apply, if possible: MUFI character recommendation v. 4.0 .

At least all non-standard characters not available in the Codepage Latin-1 (see above) are declared, with recourse to the TEI gaiji module, within the teiHeader's character declaration charDecl (even some characters available in the Codepage Latin-1 are declared if they are to be normalized for the reading view, such as ã). The charDecl also states which replacement for a specific character may be utilized as a normalized variant of that character. Accordingly, the rendering of the web application's reading view usually conducts a replacement based on the information of the charDecl, although the replacement may also be extracted from the content of the g tag (the latter being used for in-text references to non-standard characters) at the respective point in text. The declaration of a non-standard character and its mappings (to a standardized or normalized character, to an HTML entity, with regards to the MUFI recommendations, etc.) are obtained, primarily, from the ENRICH gBank; then, the "prerendered" Unicode characters (if available) or NCR entities stated in the gBank (or in the respective MUFI specification) are added to the declaration as mappings of the types of composed and precomposed. Generally, the compliance with the current MUFI recommendation is reviewed and the url value of the graphic element is updated.

Expansions of words that are abbreviated by means of non-standard characters are not resolved via the teiHeader's declaration about normalized/standardized variants, but are individually stated by the editing person within the scope of a "genuine" abbreviation expansion by means of the expan element (within choice) and without the use of a g reference for the non-standard character (which then has been resolved) in the expanded word. Alternatively, the abbreviation character may also be resolved within the text content of the g tag. For more detailed information about the handling of abbreviations, please refer to the specific section.

Examples of non-standard character declarations:

                                            <char xml:id="char2184">
                                                <desc>LATIN ABBREVIATION SIGN SMALL CON</desc>
                                                <mapping type="precomposed">ↄ</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">con</mapping>

                                            <char xml:id="charebd1">
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER D ROTUNDA WITH DOT ABOVE</desc>
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER D ROTUNDA + COMBINING DOT ABOVE</desc>
                                                    <value> drotdot = drot + combdot </value>
                                                <mapping type="MUFI" subtype="PUA">U+EBD1</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="MUFI" subtype="Combined">U+EBD1 = A77A + 0307</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="precomposed"></mapping>
                                                <mapping type="composed">ꝺ̇</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">d</mapping>
                                                <graphic mimeType="image/png" url="http://www.manuscriptorium.com/apps/gbank/data/mufi-graphic/ebd1.png"/>
                                            <char xml:id="char0111">
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH STROKE</desc>
                                                <mapping type="precomposed">đ</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="composed">d̄</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">d</mapping>

                                            <char xml:id="chari0303">
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH TILDE</desc>
                                                <mapping type="composed">ĩ</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">i</mapping>

                                            <char xml:id="charp0301">
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER P WITH ACUTE ACCENT</desc>
                                                <mapping type="composed">ṕ</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">p</mapping>
                                            <char xml:id="charp0307">
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER P WITH DOT ABOVE</desc>
                                                <mapping type="composed">ṗ</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">p</mapping>

                                            <char xml:id="chara7590303">
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER Q WITH DIAGONAL STROKE AND TILDE</desc>
                                                <mapping type="composed">ꝙ̃</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">q</mapping>

                                            <char xml:id="chare8bf">
                                                <desc>LATIN SMALL LETTER Q LIGATED WITH FINAL ET</desc>
                                                <mapping type="MUFI" subtype="PUA">U+E8BF</mapping>
                                                <mapping type="precomposed"></mapping>
                                                <mapping type="standardized">q</mapping>
                                                <graphic mimeType="image/png" url="http://www.manuscriptorium.com/apps/gbank/data/mufi-graphic/e8bf.png"/>

                                        ... <choice><abbr>at<g ref="#chare8bf">q</g></abbr><expan resp="#AW" cert="high">atque</expan></choice> ...
                                        <g ref="#e665">p</g>   ...
                                  Documentation of Non-Standard Characters

An overview of the complete set of non-standard characters encountered thus far within the scope of the digital edition, and of their respective encodings, is available in the Encoding Table of (Non-Standard) Characters.

The XML declarations of all these characters and their encodings are to be found in the following TEI file: Sonderzeichen.xml (The encodingDesc within this file is part of each TEI dataset for a work in this edition.)

With regards to the encoding of non-standard characters, abbreviations, and ligatures please also refer to the section above, and for the ("historic") practices of text encodings within the scope of this project during the transcription phase, see also the general transcription guidelines and the specific transcription guidelines (available in German only).

3.2.3.  Numerations  Pagination

Page or folio numbers are encoded through the n attribute of the pb element (see also Page, column, and line breaks). Generally, page or folio numbers are adopted from the original source; however, in the event of original numbers being false or not existent, the numeration is corrected or added, and the correct or added number is marked by means of square brackets "[...]" within the value of n:

                                        <pb n="[443]" facs="..." xml:id="..." resp="#DG" cert="high"/> 

In case a work (or part of it) is paginated folio-wise, with only the front side ("recto") of a sheet being numbered, the (existing) folio number of the front side is complemented through an "r" suffix, whereas the (non-existing) back page ("verso") number is added by adopting the front page number and adding a "v" suffix:

                                <pb n="26r" facs="..." xml:id="..."/>
                                <pb n="[26]v" facs="..." xml:id="..." resp="#DG" cert="high"/>
                                <pb n="27r" facs="..." xml:id="..."/>

With sections before the main part of the text (see also General Structure of a Work/Volume) that do not have any numeration, regularly incrementing pagination (regardless of the type of numeration of the main part) by means of Roman numerals is added; with unnumbered parts after the main part, the (type of) numeration of the main part is carried on in the way explained above (for example, marked through square brackets).  Column Numbers

If existent in the original source, column numbers are encoded – in a way analogous to page numbers – through the n attribute of element cb, possibly in a "normalized" form by means of added or corrected numbers (in case of partially lacking or incorrect numbers in the original source). If there is no numeration of columns in the original source, neither is one added in the TEI encoding.  Marginal Numbers

Argumentative shifts in (the content of) the text, usually signified on a typographic level by means of marginal numbers, or * or † symbols, are encoded by means of milestone tags (see also Typographic and Argumentative Paragraphs). At that, marginal numbers signifying shifts in such a way are recorded through the n attribute of the respective milestone tag, with definitely missing or incorrect numbers being added in a "normalized" form (i.e., marked by means of square brackets).

                                        <milestone unit="article" n="[99] rendition="#dagger" xml:id="..." resp="#DG" cert="high"/>

3.2.4.  Abbreviations and Printing Errors

Abbreviations and printing errors are encoded and resolved within choice elements (thereby being documented through the XML code, although not visible, for example, in the default reading view of the digital edition). These normalizations/corrections are always conducted on a per-token base, resolving whole words instead of single characters. Within choice elements, those sub-elements being used for recording the expansion/resolution of an abbreviated (expan) token, or the correction of a token (corr), are provided with attributes stating the editor responsible for the normalization (resp) as well as her/his certainty (cert) regarding the resolved text.

In case of a page, column, or line break (see also Page, Column, and Line Breaks) occuring within a token to be expanded (encoded by means of element abbr) or corrected (sic), the respective break is recorded also within the expanding (expan) or correcting (corr) element, at the point within the token corresponding as far as possible to the original point, and a corresp attribute in the respective break element (pb, cb, lb) referring to the xml:id of the "original" break element.  Abbreviations

Abbreviations are marked through abbr elements and, in conjunction with their expanded form recorded in expan, embedded within choice elements. The editing person responsible for the expansion states her/his certainty with regards to the expansion by means of an cert attribute:

                                            <expan resp="#AW" cert="high">Reverendissimum</expan>

The set of abbreviations also contains the "&" and "⁊" breviographs, either of them being resolved by means of the "et" expansion.

IMPORTANT When tokens abbreviated through non-standard characters (see also Non-Standard Characters) are resolved, the respective non-standard character only is stated within the non-expanded element (abbr) by means of a g tag, not within the expanded element (expan), which contains the resolved token not including the original non-standard character (or g tag, respectively) anymore.

                                                <abbr>at<g ref="#chare8bf">q</g></abbr>
                                                <expan resp="#AW" cert="high">atque</expan>

Identified printing errors are encoded by means of sic (containg the erroneous form of the token) and corr (containing the corrected form) elements within a choice element:

                                            <corr resp="#IC" cert="high">Vitoria</corr>

By contrast, identified transcription errors – resulting, for example, from the double keying of the text – are resolved silently.

3.3.  Page, Column, and Line Breaks

Page, column, and line breaks are marked by means of empty elements pb, cb, or lb at the beginning of a page, column, or line, respectively. With page or column beginnings, original page numbers or (if existent) column numbers are recorded within the n attribute. In case of a shift of column layout within the scope of a page, the beginning of a multi-column layout is marked through an attribute type="start" in cb, its end through type="end" (these elements imply, at the same time, the beginning of the new/first column, or of the non-column layout, respectively).

pb, cb, and lb all contain xml:id attributes (see xml:id). With lb, the value of xml:id – more precisely, its last four alphanumeric signs – contain information in the form of a line numbering (with other elements, the hindmost signs of xml:id contain no relevant information). At this, the first of these four signs signifies the page layout area of the current line (0 = main area of the text, no columns; 1 = main area, first column; 2 = main area, second column, and so forth; m = marginal area), the latter three signs state the position of the line, relative to previous lines in the same area of the page layout. This type of line numbering serves primarily for project-specific or corpus linguistic means, but plays no role, for instance, when it comes to the display of the edition's reading view, where line numbers are not stated.

With regards to the positioning of the previously mentioned break elements – of which there currently appears to be no clear consent in the TEI community – the following rule applies within the scope of this edition: In case a page, column, or line beginning occurs in conjunction with a respectively encoded "conceptual" text element (e.g., head, p, div, note, list, item, titlePage, titlePart, and others), the break element (pb, cb, lb) is positioned as child of the first mixed-content element occurring in the structure of this conjunction. In the event of more than one break element (also including "anchor" elements such as milestone) occurring conjunctly, the following order applies: pb, cb, lb, milestone, other elements.

Please consider the following, comprehensive example:

                                        <pb facs="facs:W9998-B-0015" n="34" xml:id="W9998-02-pb-0015-d78a"/>
                                        <lb xml:id="W9998-02-0015-lb-0001"/><hi rendition="#r-center">Caput VIII</hi>
                                    </head><!-- heading centered above the two following columns -->
                                    <cb type="start" xml:id="W9998-02-0015-cb-66d7"/><!-- beginning of multi-column layout -->
                                    <lb xml:id="W9998-02-0015-lb-1001"/>... first line of first column ...
                                    <lb xml:id="W9998-02-0015-lb-1002"/>... second line of first column ...
                                <cb xml:id="W9998-02-0015-cb-66d8"/>
                                    <lb xml:id="W9998-02-0015-lb-2001"/>... first line of second column ...
                                <cb type="end" xml:id="W9998-02-0015-cb-66d9"/> <!-- end of multi-column layout -->
                                    <lb xml:id="W9998-02-0015-lb-0002"/> ...

3.4.  Hyphenation

Hyphens occurring at the end of lines are not retained in the text, but encoded by means of an attribute rendition="#hyphen" within the respective lb element. In the event of several immediately consecutive breaks (e.g., pb+cb+lb) this attribute is only set within the first such break (element).

                                <lb xml:id="W0013-02-0927-lb-0131"/>Simonia omnis an sit iure di<lb break="no" rendition="#hyphen"
                                    xml:id="W0013-02-0927-lb-0132"/>uino prohibita, &amp; an ali<pb break="no" rendition="#hyphen"
                                facs="facs:W0013-B-0928" n="[437]" xml:id="W0013-02-0928-pb-6c77"/><cb break="no" rendition="#noHyphen"
                                xml:id="W0013-02-0928-cb-0d4b"/><lb break="no" rendition="#noHyphen"
                                    xml:id="W0013-02-0928-lb-0001"/>qua sit solùm iure positiuo. 12. 172
    Hyphenation Variants
  • Separations of syllables marked in the original source text by means of hyphens are encoded through a respective break element obtaining an attribute rendition with value #hyphen.
  • Separations of syllables not marked in the source text by means of hyphens are encoded through the rendition attribute with value #noHyphen within the respective break element.
  • Furthermore, separations – regardless of their markedness in the source text – are annotated through an attribute break="no" within any intervening break elements. At this, break="no" signifies the coherence of a word divided by means of the respective break element(s). It is important that in such cases no whitespace (i.e., no blank, tab, or newline character) occurs outside of these elements; newlines are encoded in the XML document within pb, cb, and lb elements, by preference immediately after the element name and before the break attribute.
  • By contrast, a "normal" line break not dividing a word is encoded by means of a simple lb element (see Page, Column, and Line Breaks).

3.5.  Loss of text and conjectures

In case of text loss due to censorship on the scale of single characters, words, or a sentence, the respective range of text is marked through a del tag; text loss on the scale of longer passages of text is annotated by means of an empty delSpan tag at its beginning, with an attribute spanTo within delSpan referencing the xml:id of an (empty) anchor tag at the end of the passage. The attribute cause of del or delSpan, respectively, obtains the value censorship.

Text passages barely legible or utterly illegible due to reasons other than censorship are marked by means of damage or (analogous to delSpan, see above) damageSpan elements, with OPTIONAL  an attribute agent stating the reason of damage (such as water, rubbing, tearing, ink, amongst others).

If the text within a passage of these types is still readable, it is annotated by means of an unclear element, the reason attribute of which corresponds to the larger "surrounding" element in that it states either damage or deletion. The editing person records her/his responsibility for the passage within resp (using a #xx abbreviation of the name initials as value) and his/her certainty with regards to the resolved text within cert, which obtains a value of high, medium, or low.

Should the text not be readable anymore, but the editing person has a readable substitution page of the same edition of the work at her disposal, IMPORTANT the text is plainly encoded, without a specific annotation. Instead, the usage of pages from an other original sample of the same edition is stated within the teiHeader (see Bibliographic Description)..

If the text is not readable anymore, but the editing person has a legible substitution page of an other, differing edition of the work at her disposal, the utilized source is stated in the source attribute of element supplied (which is made use of for encoding the supplied text, see below):

                                        <unclear reason="damage" resp="#AW" cert="high">2 Ut ordinate 
                                            <supplied resp="#AW" cert="high" source="Azpilcueta, Martin de:
                                            Manual de confessores y penitentes [...] - Anvers : Nucio, 1555, S. 67 /SBBpK">
                                            amus ...

In this case (readable substitution page of a different edition is on hand), or in the case of the editing person having an assumption about the supplementation of the missing text, the supplementation is added by means of the supplied element. The reason, resp, and cert attributes are utilized as described previously.

                                <div type="section" xml:id="...">
                                    <p>... <damageSpan agent="water" spanTo="#W0998-00-0024-an-9fc7"/>
                                        <unclear reason="damage" resp="#AW" cert="high" xml:id="...">est, consequamur.</unclear>
                                <div type="section" xml:id="..." n="De sacramenti nomine">
                                        <unclear reason="damage" resp="#AW" cert="high" xml:id="...">2 Ut ordinate 
                                            proced<supplied resp="#AW" cert="high">amus</supplied>
                                        <anchor xml:id="W0998-00-0024-an-9fc7"/> antequam seorsim ...

Should the text not be readable and there is also no assumption to be made about its supplementation, the existing gap is signified by means of a gap element, its attributes being utilized, again, as described previously.

3.6.  Typographic Styles and Text Alignment

Typographic chacteristics in the text are encoded by means of the rendition attribute. This comprises the following types of characteristics:

  • Characters meaningful with regards textual or argumentative structures, such as hyphens, asterisks or daggers, are captured in different types of elements (e.g., milestone) by means of the rendition attribute. (With regards to non-standard characters without specific meaning, please refer to Non-Standard Characters.) The encoding of typographic features within the respective (type of) element appears reasonable due to the immediate correlation of the character and the text phenomenon expressed by means of the respective element.
  • Specific formattings of the font (such as initials, italics, recte, bold, small caps, superscript, subscript, or spaced) are usually encoded through hi elements with rendition attributes. This is supposed to serve, firstly, as a simple rule for consistency, and is also meant, secondly, to express a logical separation between text phenomena (and the respective elements) of a rather "conceptual", structural nature (such as p or head) on the one side, and text phenomena and elements of a typographic nature on the other side.
  • Text alignment: Centered or right-aligned formatting of a text block is usually encoded through the hi element with a rendition attribute if the text block is a "simple" block (e.g., captured by means of a p element) without special formatting within the scope of this edition, and not a "conceptual" block (such as a head heading) with inherent formatting.

The following formattings by means of rendition are currently available:

                                <styleDefDecl scheme="css"/>
                                        <rendition xml:id="hyphen">content:'-';</rendition> <!-- hyphen -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="noHyphen">content:'';</rendition> <!-- no hyphen within a coherent word -->  
                                        <rendition xml:id="asterisk">content:'*';</rendition> <!-- asterisk -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="initCaps" scope="first-letter">font-size: xx-large;</rendition> <!-- initial -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="it">font-style: italic;</rendition> <!-- italics -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="b">font-weight: bold;</rendition> <!-- bold -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="sc">font-variant: small-caps;</rendition> <!-- small caps -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="sup">vertical-align: sup; font-size: .83em;</rendition> <!-- superscript -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="sub">vertical-align: sub; font-size: .83em;</rendition> <!-- subscript -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="spc">letter-spacing: 3px;</rendition> <!-- letter spacing -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="recte">font-style: normal;</rendition> <!-- recte, not italicized within italicized passage-->
                                        <rendition xml:id="r-center">text-align: center;</rendition> <!-- centered -->
                                        <rendition xml:id="right">text-align: right;</rendition> <!-- right-aligned -->
                                        <!--  <namespace name="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">
                                        <tagUsage gi="lb" rendition="#noHyphen"/>
                                        <tagUsage gi="milestone" rendition="#asterisk"/>

4.  Structuring and Enrichment of the Works

4.1.  Structuring

4.1.1.  Multi-Volume Works

Multi-volume works are encoded as one XML dataset that contains groups (group) of texts (namely volumes: text type="work_volume"). The overarching text element in the dataset of the multi-volume work is, in this case, of the type work_multivolume. With single-volume works, type has the value work_monograph. Within the text element of a volume or work, respectively, the structure is further annotated by means of front, body, back, div, etc., as described in the following.

                                <!-- dataset of a multi-volume work -->
                                <teiHeader> ... </teiHeader>
                                <text xml:lang="la" type="work_multivolume" xml:id="completeWork">
                                        <text xml:id="Vol01" xml:lang="la" type="work_volume" n="1">
                                            <front><!-- front matter of the first volume -->
                                                <div type="lecture" xml:id="..." n="De potestate Ecclesiae I">
                                        <text xml:id="Vol02" xml:lang="la" type="work_volume" n="2">
                                            <front xml:id="..."><!-- front matter of the second volume -->

4.1.2.  General Structure of a Text

On the highest structural level of a text (i.e., directly below the text element), its main part is embedded in the body element. The title page (see also Title Page(s)) and, potentially, further sections before the main part (such as devotions, prologues, tables of contents, statements about privileges, etc.) are embedded in the front (front matter) element; possibly occurring sections after the main part (indices, errata, tables of contents, etc.) are encoded within the back (back matter) element.

4.1.3.  Title Page(s)

Title pages are each (there may be several) encoded by means of the respective elements (described, for instance, in the TEI P5 guidelines). At this, the title page is altogether captured in a titlePage element. The complete title is annotated through the docTitle element, within which the title or the title's components, respectively, is/are annotated as one or several titlePart(s), with each titlePart obtaining a type attribute of one of the following values: main (main title of the work), sub (subtitle), alt (alternative title), desc (descriptive paraphrase of the work's/volume's content).

Further elements of the title page, if existing, are annotated through the following types of tags (the descriptions are taken from the respective part of the guidelines linked above):

  • byline: "... the primary statement of responsibility given for a work".
  • docAuthor: "contains the name of the author of the [work/volume]"; in its key, the normalized form of the author's name is stated (see also the respective section).
  • imprimatur: "contains a formal statement authorizing the publiction of a work".
  • docEdition: "contains an edition statement" (including, for instance, statements about the current edition in comparison with previous ones – although the "School of Salamanca" project usually collects a text's first edition).
  • docImprint: "contains the imprint statement (place and date of publication, publisher name)"; docImprint may include docDate, see below.
  • docDate: "contains the date of a [work/volume]" (potentially occurs within docImprint); the when attribute contains the year of publication as a four-digit number.

The thus encoded metadata of a text as given on its title page may also serve for cross-checking with the Bibliographic Description of the work. All text blocks on a title page not mentioned here are annotated as typographic paragraphs (p) by default.

4.1.4.  Structural Text Units

The structural units of the text (e.g., lectures, books, chapters, questions) that are marked in the original text by means of headings or numerations, for instance, are annotated OPTIONAL  as far as possible as div elements of different types. The naming of the different types reflects an English terminology ("book", "part", "chapter", "question", "foreword", etc.) and it basically follows the specifications given in the DFG-Viewer Strukturdatenset (German), although some of the elements described there were omitted and others were added. Details can be obtained from our TEI schema.

IMPORTANTIn order to allow for a differentiated searchability of the texts, the following values of type always need to be stated: book, contained_work, corrigenda, contents, index, lecture, map, and part.

Each div element is completed, if possible, through a head element (heading) on its child axis. IMPORTANT This means, by implication, that the headings of sections marked as div must not be encoded as head elements within other child elements of div such as list or lg. OPTIONAL  Very long headings may be abbreviatedly stated in the respective div element's n attribute.

4.1.5.  Typographic and Argumentative Paragraphs

The typographic paragraph divisions, marked in the source by means of vertical margins, first-line indentation, shorter line endings (not reaching the end of the justification), or others, are annotated as p paragraphs. Potentially existing paragraph symbols ('¶') are not deleted.

Shifts from one argumentative paragraph to the next, usually marked through marginal numbers, "*" or "†" symbols, or others, are annotated by means of milestone tags. This applies for the case that shifts marked in such a way occur within the "ordinary" continuous text, and also for the case that a shift occurs together with the beginning of a typographic p paragraph (in the latter case, the milestone tag is set as (one of) the first child elements of p even before the first text node). The symbols are not encoded in the text, but rather in the rendition attribute of the respective milestone tag.

                                <milestone unit="article" n="2" rendition="#dagger" xml:id="W0998-00-0099-mi-34ca"/>

4.1.6.  Lists

Tables of contents, indices, dictionaries, and other types of list structures are annotated as list elements containing items (which, by taking the examples of dictionaries, may be used to annotate each term within the dictionary). Lists are possibly headed by titles (head) and annotated as list with type attributes containing a value such as contents, index, or dict. The annotation of the single (term) entries takes place on the lowest list/item level. In case of a list containing superior structures (e.g., the subsumption of entries in indices with regards to their initial characters), the subsumption of items are themselves annotated as (sub-)lists containing the low-level items (and perhaps their own sub-headings) and being part of a larger overall list; in this sense, lists may be nested.

4.1.7.  Verse Text

OPTIONAL  Text blocks consisting exclusively of verses – usually identifiable by deeper indentation than the surrounding text and, potentially, italicization – are annotated by means of the lg element. If a text block of this type contains clearly identifiable stanzas, the stanzas themselves are embedded in lg tags (within the overall lg). The single verse lines, possibly reaching beyond typographical line breaks (which may be marked in the original text through deeper indentation of the following typographic line) are each annotated through the l element.

                                    <lb xml:id="..."/>EIVSDEM AD LIBRVM.</head>
                                <lg xml:id="...">
                                        <lb xml:id="..."/>I liber in lucem tineis blattísque sepultus:
                                        <lb xml:id="..."/>Iam ter quinque annos delituisse sat est.
                                        <lb xml:id="..."/>Iam p<g ref="#char0153">oe</g>nas patri nimium, 
                                            nimium<g ref="#chare8bf0301">que</g> dedisti:
                                        <lb xml:id="..."/>Zoilus haud, qui te mordeat, ullus erit.

4.1.8.  Notes and Comments

Comments, bottom notes, or marginal notes are annotated through the note element, the place attribute of which states whether the note is a marginal (margin), bottom/foot (bottom) or other type of note. At this, several different cases are possible: The note may be identified in the text of the original source by means of a symbol (e.g., a superscript character, or an asterisk); this symbol may occur at the exact position in the text from which the note is referenced, at the beginning of the note, or at either position.  Position

If the exact position of the note can be clearly identified, the note (including all its text and markup content) is encoded at this very position. Otherwise, the note is encoded (completely) at the end of the line occurring on the same height on the page as the note, and it obtains an attribute anchored="false".

In the event of a page or column break occurring within the note, the respective element (pb or cb) refers to the xml:id of the corresponding break element (pb or cb) in the main area of the text by means of an sameAs attribute (see also xml:id).  Symbols

A symbol that references a note in the main area of the text is annotated by means of a ref element of type note-anchor and immediately precedes the note (see also Cross-References). The target attribute of ref refers to the xml:id of the note element which the symbol refers to.

A symbol identifying/labeling the note at the beginning of a note is solely encoded as value of the n attribute of the note (and, hence, deleted from the text of the note).

                                        <ref type="note-anchor" n="d" target="#W0998-00-0099-nm-363d">
                                            <hi rendition="#sup">d</hi>
                                        <note place="margin" xml:id="W0998-00-0099-nm-363d" n="d">
                                            refert <persName>Sixtus.</persName> et  Tritem. ...

4.2.  Identification and Linking of Text Elements

4.2.1.  xml:id

Generally, xml:id attributes are made use of in order to uniquely identify elements in the XML document (which is then utilized, not least, for linking and referencing text passages, or search results, in the web application). By virtue of the xml:id attribute, an element becomes "addressable" as the target of a link or a reference in the first place, while other attributes (such as ref or target) at the "jumping-off point" of the link/reference state the point to be linked to, or if the "jumping-off point" is to be processed or rendered in a specific manner. Within the scope of this edition, a large part of the structural and semantic elements (such as div, milestone, head, p, note, item, or term) within/below the TEI text element obtain by default an xml:id attribute (value).

At this, the concrete values of xml:id are generally "standardized" in that they follow a specific schema/syntax. However, special rules apply for the two elements TEI and text:


The xml:id of the TEI element states the project-specific five-place ID of the work. If the dataset merely comprises one volume of a multi-volume work, a suffix _VolXX is added, with "XX" signifying the two-digit volume number (potentially with a leading zero).

                                        <TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" 
                                        <TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" 


The text element obtains either the xml:id value completeWork in case it is not part of a multi-volume work, or the xml:id value VolXX (with "XX" being the volume number, potentially containing a leading zero) if it comprises one volume of a multi-volume work.

                                         <text xml:lang="la" type="work_monograph" xml:id="completeWork">
                                            ... or ...
                                        <text xml:lang="la" type="work_volume" xml:id="Vol03">

The values of all elements within (or below, so to speak) of the text element that have an xml:id attribute follow a consistent schema in that the value always has 21 places and consists of the following parts:

xml:id="[work ID]-[volume number]-[facsimile number]-[element code]-[alphan. code]"


  • Work ID: project-specific 5-place ID of the work (not the volume) that the element is to be found in, such as "W0002" or "W0013".
  • Volume number: 2-digit number of the volume within the work, in which the element identified through the xml:id attribute is to be found; is "00" in case of a single-volume work, "01" with the first volume, "02" with the second volume, and so on.
  • Facsimile number: 4-digit value stating the number of the facsimile that corresponds to the element identified by the xml:id; the value follows the value of the facs attribute of the nearest previous page break (pb).
  • Element code: a 2-letter abbreviation for the type of element that is to be identified, such as "pa" for p elements. For a complete list of all possible element codes, please see further below in this section.
  • Alphanumeric code: a 4-place alphanumeric value which primarily serves for the uniqueness of the xml:id value, and which only in the case of lb elements contains relevant information (in the form of line numeration, please see Page, Column, and Line Breaks).

The following elements obtain an xml:id following the schema described here (the corresponding element codes are stated in quotation marks):

  • front: "fm" (front matter)
  • body: "tb" (text body)
  • back: "bm" (back matter)
  • titlePage: "tp"
  • docTitle: "dt"
  • titlePart with attribute @type="main": "tm" (main title of the work)
  • div: "dX" (division, with "X" as a numeric value stating the div's position in the overall div hierarchy: e.g., "d1" is a "top-level" div)
  • head: "he" (heading)
  • item: "it"
  • list: "li"
  • p: "pa" (paragraph)
  • pb: "pb"
  • lb: "lb"
  • note: with attribute @type="margin": "nm" (Marginalnote)
  • milestone: "mi"
  • lg: "lg"
  • unclear: "un"
  • persName: "pe"
  • placeName: "pl"
  • term: "te"
  • title: "ti"
                                        <div xml:id="W0002-00-0010-d1-03eb" type="privileges">
                                            <head xml:id="W0002-00-0010-he-03ea">
                                                <pb n="[vii]" facs="facs:W0002-0010" xml:id="W0002-00-0010-pb-03ee"/>
                                                <lb xml:id="W0002-00-0010-lb-0001"/>
                                                Priuilegio del Rey de Portugal.
                                            <p xml:id="W0002-00-0010-pa-040a">
                                                <lb xml:id="W0002-00-0010-lb-0002"/>
                                                <hi rendition="#initCaps">E</hi><hi rendition="#it">V El Rey...

The consistent syntax of xml:id within the text area, allowing for a differentiation of uniquely identified elements with regards to their work, volume, facsimile number, and/or element type (or even, in the case of lb, with regards to its line number), is supposed to make such elements "addressable" and recognizable in a logically intuitive way (not least for persons editing the XML document).

4.2.2.  Cross-References

If annotated, cross-references are annotated generally by means of the ref element and its target attribute. They occur, for example, in the form of short summary titles in the table of contents of works or work parts, respectively, or in the form of symbols referencing marginal notes. The type attribute of ref marks these differences, valid values are currently summary and note-anchor (and url and image, which are usually not relevant, however, in the works). The target attribute states the xml:id of the element that is to be referenced.

                            <list type="summaries">
                                    ...esto. nume. <ref type="summary" target="#W0002-00-0025-mi-03fe">15.</ref>
                            Ni es 
                            <milestone unit="article" rendition="#dagger" n="15" xml:id="W0002-00-0025-mi-03fe"/> 
                            contra razon, que vno...
                                <ref type="note-anchor" n="n" target="#W0002-00-0025-nm-0420">
                                    <hi rendition="#sup">n</hi>
                                <note place="margin" n="n" anchored="true" xml:id="W0002-00-0025-nm-0420">
                                    <lb xml:id="..."/>Maior. in 4...

4.3.  References and Semantic Text Enrichment

The edition of the "School of Salamanca" project links different internal datasets: works, dictionary articles, and authors. Furthermore, there are references to external data from authority files, leading out of the web application. For the latter purpose, the CERL-Thesaurus (Consortium of European Research Libraries), the Gemeinsame Normdatei der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek (GND) and, with place names, the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names ® Online are referenced. All these (internal and external) references make use of the xml:id attribute described above as well as the attributes ref, key, and sortKey, which shall be described in the following.

4.3.1.  Attributes for References and Normalizations  ref

ref attributes are made use of in order to link entities occurring in the text to their specific dataset; this concerns, for instance, the linking of references to persons to the respective (project-specific) author dataset, of place names to the public authority file, etc. At this, the attribute value obtains a prefix separated from the subsequent number by means of a colon, stating the place or authority file in which the entity is to be found: author:, work:, or lemma: refer to datasets for authors, works, or lemmata of the "School of Salamanca" project, whereas cerl:, getty:, and gnd: refer to external authority files. There can be multiple such references/keys within one attribute value, separated through blank characters; at this, IMPORTANT the project-specific author dataset needs to be referenced, if existing, and OPTIONAL  there should also be a reference to the CERL dataset (when it comes to persons) or to the getty dataset (with locations). The web application currently uses the key stated at first position, so that the internal keys (author:, work:, lemma:) should be mentioned primarily, then potentially followed by the cerl: key, and after that coming further keys to authority files.

IMPORTANT Please note that the reference by means of the ref attribute, linking a contentually relevant element to a respective dataset, is something conceptually different than the type of structural cross-reference described above; for instance, the latter is more or less explicitely stated as such in the original document (by means of page or paragraph numbers, etc.) and tagged through the ref element, while the former can only be identified, to a large extent, through scholarly studying of the text (ultimately, then, being encoded within the ref attribute).  Variants of @ref

Depending on the type of reference to be made, there are three different scenarios for using the ref attribute.

  • 1. A place/element within the same dataset is referenced.
                                                <!-- always without prefix (work:, lemma:, author:)-->
                                                <term ref="#W0998-00-0066-mi-3e52" key="utilitas" xml:id="W0998-00-0014-te-aa45">
                                                context ...
  • 2. A different, project-specific dataset (or a place/entity therein) is referenced.
                                                <!-- always with prefix (work:, lemma:, author:) and @xml:id of the dataset (in this case: A0001)-->
                                                <persName ref="author:A0001#A0001-pa-43fa" key="Vitoria, Francisco de" xml:id="W0998-00-0324-pe-7f6a">
                                                FRANCISCI ...
  • 3. A dataset/entity external to the project's digital edition is referenced. Please see External Linked Data.  key

key attributes are used for recording normalized variants of the entities annotated through the respective elements. In case of a failing recourse to the normalized variant from the external authority file, the web application makes use of the value of this attribute. The following elements obtain a key attribute applied in this way:

  • persName
  • docAuthor
  • placeName
  • title
  • term  Normalization of Proper Names and Work Titles

OPTIONAL  If there are established and well-known forms of work titles or proper names, they may be recorded in their normalized/modernized variant (in addition to the annotated, original variant of the text) by means of the key attribute in elements persName, docAuthor, placeName, or title:

                                    <persName ref="cerl:01302080" key="Hieronymus, Sophronius Eusebius" resp="#DG" cert="high">
                                        <title key="De Republica, Liber III, § 11" resp="#DG" cert="high">
                                            Lib. 3 de Republi. tit. 11. fol.78.

(With regards to proper names and work titles, please see also the sections on Persons, Places, and Bibliographic References. For the ref attribute in this example, please see also the section on ref attributes.)  sortKey

The sortKey attribute is used exclusively with bibl elements (hence, with external bibliographic references or references to internal works). It serves to group references to a specific work. Thus, the entry to be stated within sortKey consists of the author name, the "_" separator, and the work's (short) title. Blank space occurring in the name or title is omitted, instead the following word is simply appended, with its first letter in upper case ("camel case"), to the previous word. Examples:

                                    <bibl sortKey="Mt_16">Matthei decimo sexto</bibl>,
                                    <bibl sortKey="ThomasAquinas_SThPrimaPars">
                                            <persName ref="cerl:cnp00396685" key="Thomas &lt;de Aquino&gt;">
                                                    <orig>S. Tho.</orig>
                                                    <reg>Sanctus Thomas</reg>

With numerated or named elements, the name or number of the element (i.e., the text passage) can be stated within the value of n. This functionality acutally has nothing to do with the previously mentioned references and links, but is rather mentioned at this place in order to avoid ambiguities. It can be used, though, for stating page numbers (within the pb element, please see Pagination) or short titles (within div, for example, in the case of a long title in its head element, see also Structural Text Units).

                                        <div type="foreword" xml:id="..." n="Praefatio (Boyer)">...</div>
                                        <div type="question" xml:id="..." n="Qu. 1 - An in Eccl. sit dignitas">...</div>
                                        <milestone unit="article" xml:id="..." n="De diversis acceptionibus"/>
                                        <pb facs="facs:W0065-B-0077" n="[2]" xml:id="..."/>

4.3.2.  Internal References

Internal references designate links between datasets within the digital edition (see also Variants of @ref) and can be applied, for instance, in the following scenarios:

  • References from a work to passages in other works, to authors of works of the digital edition, or to lemmata of the dictionary;
  • Reference from a dictionary article (i.e., from a lemma dataset) to passages of other dictionary articles and/or to specific authors, or to passages in specific works of the source collection.  Lemmata

Lemmata – i.e., references to terms covered in the project's dictionary – are annotated in the work corpus specifically by means of the term element. At this, the lemma dataset is referred to from the ref attribute of term. In the key attribute, the normalized form of the lemma's name (i.e., normalized according to the name in the dictionary article) is recorded.

An example (for illustrative purposes):

                                        De <term ref="lemma:L0001" key="utilitas" xml:id="W0998-00-0034-te-7a8df">utilitate</term> ...
                                        <term ref="lemma:L0325" key="lumen supernaturale" xml:id="W0998-00-0087-te-445f">supernaturali lumine</term> et revelatio
                                        <lb/>ne cognita ad Deum et divina quaedam pertinent:
                                        <term ref="lemma:L0404" key="obiectum scientiae Theologiae" xml:id="W0998-00-0113-te-77da">
                                            obiectum verum scien<lb break="no" rendition="#hyphen"/>tiae Theologiae

The "authors" designate those persons authoring one or several works of the corpus. In the event of an author being mentioned (e.g., in the form of a clearly assignable citation or paraphrase), the mentioned proper name, or reference to the author is annotated by means of the persName element. Accordingly, the reference to the respective dataset (within ref) and the normalized form (i.e., the name of the author according to the corresponding biographical article, stated in key) are recorded.

                                        <persName ref="author:A0001 cerl:cnp01318674 gnd:118768735" key="Vitoria, Francisco de" xml:id="W0998-00-0245-pe-7ff8">
                                            FRANCISCI DE VIctoria

The annotation of authors is to be differentiated from the annotation of "external" person names in that, with authors, the author's key (e.g., ref="author:A0001") must be stated. (with regards to external person names, see also Persons in the "External Linked Data" section).  Works

The "works" are those works that are encoded within the scope of the digital edition of this project. Citations and other bibliographic references to these works, occurring in a text (of an other work), are annotated by means of the bibl element. In the element's sortKey attribute, an identifying abbreviation consisting of the author name, separator "_", and work (short) title (of the referenced work) is to be stated. The bibl element usually contains further sub-elements such as author (including persName, for which the respective section applies), and title.

                                        ... as 
                                        <bibl sortKey="Vitoria_ComSTh">
                                                <persName ref="author:A0001" key="Vitoria, Francisco de">Vitoria</persName>
                                            </author> in <title ref="work:W0015#a6ef">Liber 1 Caput 1 Artikel 1</title>
                                        explains ...

The annotation of citations of, or bibliographic references to "external" authors (authoring works that are not included in the corpus at hand) are described in Bibliographic References.

4.3.3.  External Linked Data

OPTIONAL  "External linked data" refer to persons, places, or cited literature not encoded or described within the scope of this digital edition. In the process of contentual analysis and enrichment of the texts, these persons, places, or literary references are successively – and, potentially, constrained to certain parts of the texts – annotated. Consequently, the annotation may not be conducted to the full extent, but rather in the process of studying the source material. With specific works or sequences in single works, in which persons, places, or bibliographic references are annotated rather exhaustively, informations about these annotations need to be stated in the teiHeader.  Persons

For the demands of these guidelines, references to persons – different from Authors – are external references. With persons (i.e., persNames), the ref attribute links to the CERL Thesaurus, and OPTIONAL  to the GND. In the key attribute, the normalized form of the person name proposed in the CERL database is stated, serving as a "fallback" solution in case of the CERL server not being available.

                                        <persName ref="cerl:cnp00396685 gnd:118622110" key="Thomas de Aquino">B. Thomas</persName>

With places (placeName), the ref attribute references the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names® Online and OPTIONAL  the GND authority files. The key attribute states the normalized place name proposed in the GETTY dataset, serving as a "fallback" solution in case of the GETTY server not being available.

                                        <placeName ref="getty:7002722" key="Athos">Monte Athon</placeName>

4.4.  Bibliographic References

Citations and other references to external literature (not included in the corpus described here) occurring in the text are annotated by means of the bibl element (with regards to references to works of the corpus, please refer to Works). In the element's sortKey attribute, an identifying abbreviation consisting of the author name, separator "_", and work (short) title (of the referenced work) is to be stated. The bibl element usually contains further sub-elements such as author or title.

                                 <bibl sortKey="Fischer_Fische">
                                         <persName ref="cerl:99999" key="Fischer, Fritz">Fritz Fischer</persName>
                                     <title>Meine Fische</title>

5.  Metadata in the teiHeader

In the teiHeader of a work, generic information (applying to all works of the corpus) is embedded by means of xi:include elements. The latter are included from the central documentation file for TEI metadata of the project. This comprises the following statements from the teiHeader:

  • editionStmt
  • publicationStmt
  • encodingDesc

In the documentation file for TEI metadata of the project, the non-standard characters declared in the charDecl are included in turn via xi:include from a specific non-standard character file.

In opposition to these generically (i.e., corpus-wide) applying information, the following data is to be annotated in a work-specific way:

5.1.  Bibliographic Description

Bibliographic information about the original source used for encoding are recorded in the sourceDesc.

                                                <persName ref="author:0011 gnd:118944053 cerl:cnp01451608" key="Azpilcueta, Martin de">
                                            <title type="short" level="m">Manual de confessores</title>
                                            <title type="main" level="m">Manval De Confessores Y Penitentes, Qve Clara Y Brevemente Contiene, La Vniversal Y Particular Decision De Qvasi Todas Las Dvdas, que en confessiones suelen ocurrir de los pecados, ... en cinco Comentarios de Vsura, Cambios, Symonia mental, Defension del proximo, De hurto notable, &amp; irregularidad ...</title>
                                            <title type="245a" level="m">Manual de confessores y penitentes : que clara y breuemente contiene la universal y particular decision de quasi todas las dudas ... </title>
                                                <pubPlace role="firstEd" ref="getty:7010814" key="Coimbra">Coimbra</pubPlace>
                                                <date type="firstEd" when="1553">1553</date>
                                                <pubPlace role="thisEd" ref="getty:7002835" key="Salamanca">Salamanca</pubPlace>
                                                <date type="thisEd" when="1556">1556</date>
                                                <publisher n="firstEd">
                                                    <persName ref="gnd:1037601092" key="Barreira, João de"><!--not found in CERL-->
                                                    <persName ref="cerl:cni00045922" key="Alvares, João">
                                                <publisher n="thisEd">
                                                    <persName ref="gnd:1037609387" key="Portonariis, Andreas de"><!--not found in CERL-->
                                                [16], 797 [i.e. 799] S. ; 4° 
                                        <note xml:id="ownerOfPrimarySource">
                                            <ref type="institution" target="gnd:4313400-2">Universität Salamanca / Bibliothek</ref>
                                            <ref type="catLink" target="http://brumario.usal.es/record=b1857195~S1*spi#.VEdkThaq5OI"/>
                                            <!--further sources/institutions are to be stated here-->

The bibliographic description follows, with regards to the full title (title type="main"), the guidelines "Alte Drucke" (German) of the Head Office of Gemeinsamer Bibliotheksverbund (p. 6-7), as well as, analogously, the guidelines of the Mindestanforderungen für die autoptische Katalogisierung Alter Drucke (AAD) (German). As the example shows, an established, citable short title and a "Ansetzungssachtitel" (according to the guidelines) are satetd along with the full title. Authors and places are annotated corresponding to the edition guidelines at hand.

The information about the original source may contain the following exception: If the digitized and encoded edition is not the first edition of the text, a publisher element containing the n attribute with value thisEd is added. In the event of encoding a different edition than the first one, the information about both relevant editions is thus recorded and displayed.

A similar exception applies with regards to the datasets of multi-volume works:

                                        <pubPlace role="firstEd" ref="getty:7007856" key="Antwerpen">Antverpiae</pubPlace> <!--@key = the preferred Getty reference-->
                                        <date type="firstEd" when="1668">1668</date>
                                        <date type="summaryFirstEd" when="1668">1.1668 - 6.1686</date>
                                        <publisher n="firstEd">
                                            <persName ref="cerl:cni00031626 gnd:123414245" key="Meurs, Jacob van">

Should the digitized series not be the one containing the first editions of the volumes, the date element containing the type attribute value of summaryFirstEd is complemented by a date element containing the type attribute value of summaryThisEd. Thus, it is made clear which volumes from the series have been encoded, and whether the volumes are the first-edition volumes.

In conjunction with the information about imprints (Printers/publishers, publication place and year), the institution in possession of the digital scans of the original and a link to the corresponding catalogue entry are recorded. Should pages be missing in this original source, they are substituted through those of other versions/editions as far as possible. Die Addition of "external" pages and their origin are documented within the sourceDesc in the form of a list.